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How to Challenge the Validity of Life Insurance Beneficiary Designations

What happens when there is a dispute between parties regarding the validity of a life insurance beneficiary designation?

This scenario raises complex legal questions surrounding conflicting claims and the rightful entitlement to life insurance proceeds. The solution lies within the realm of “interpleader” lawsuits.

These legal actions offer a remedy when parties notify the life insurance company of a potential dispute before the disbursement of funds, allowing the interpleader action to be initiated.

Interpleader lawsuits serve as a shield for the life insurance company, enabling them to pay the proceeds into the court’s custody and let the disputing parties battle it out without dragging the insurance company into the midst of the conflict. These lawsuits provide a means to consolidate claims and seek a resolution through a single legal proceeding.

The recent Allstate Insurance Company v. Benton, No. 3:21-cv-3124-K-BN (N.D. Tex. 2023) case serves as a compelling example of the intricacies surrounding such interpleader cases. It offers insights into the choice of jurisdiction and highlights why Texas probate courts, rather than Federal District Courts, may be the preferred forum for resolving disputes related to life insurance beneficiary designations.

Facts & Procedural History

This case involves life insurance proceeds. The decedent executed several beneficial designation forms several years before his death.

The second to last forms named his sister and his estate as equal beneficiaries. The last form named his wife as the 100% beneficiary.

When the decedent died, the insurance company was notified by the decedent’s brother that the last beneficiary form was invalid.

The insurance company received claim forms from the surviving spouse and forms from three minors, who were presumably the decedent’s children.

The insurance company responded by filing an interpleader action naming all of the claimants and the decedent’s estate. The insurance company filed suit in Federal District Court rather than the Texas probate court.

About Interpleader Lawsuits

An interpleader lawsuit is a legal action initiated by a party who holds property or funds that are claimed by two or more competing parties. It is a mechanism used to resolve disputes over the rightful ownership or entitlement to the property or funds in question.

An interpleader suit is often used in situations where a stakeholder holds money or property belonging to someone else, such as an escrow agent holding funds in dispute, a bank holding funds subject to competing claims, or an insurance company holding the proceeds of a policy claimed by multiple beneficiaries. It provides a way to consolidate the claims and resolve the dispute in a single legal proceeding.

The party initiating the interpleader suit, often referred to as the stakeholder, essentially pays the funds or assets over to the court and then asks the court to determine who among the competing claimants is entitled to the property or funds. By doing so, the stakeholder seeks to avoid being exposed to multiple lawsuits and conflicting judgments.

To file an interpleader suit, the stakeholder typically deposits the disputed property or funds with the court and names all the claimants as defendants. The stakeholder then asks the court to determine the rightful claimant and to discharge the stakeholder from liability regarding the property or funds. The stakeholder will usually ask the court to be dismissed as a party to the lawsuit once they have paid over the funds.

The court will generally issue an order requiring the claimants to present their respective claims and provide evidence supporting their entitlement.

The Federal Interpleader Rules

The federal interpleader action is authorized by the United States Code, specifically under 28 U.S.C. § 1335.

This statute grants federal courts jurisdiction over interpleader actions when certain conditions are met. According to 28 U.S.C. § 1335, the federal interpleader jurisdiction is applicable when:

  1. The amount in controversy exceeds $500;
  2. There are multiple claimants who have adverse claims to the same funds or property;
  3. The claimants are citizens of different states or are aliens; and
  4. The stakeholder (the party initiating the interpleader action) has deposited the disputed funds or property with the court.

By meeting these requirements, a party can bring an interpleader action in federal court and avail themselves of the benefits and protections offered by federal interpleader jurisdiction.

Texas Interpleader Rules

In Texas, the interpleader action is governed by Tex. R. Civ. P. 43. Rule 43 of the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure provides the framework for interpleader actions in Texas state courts.

Under Rule 43, a plaintiff who is potentially exposed to double or multiple liability due to conflicting claims against them may join the claimants as defendants and request them to interplead. The rule allows the plaintiff to bring together all the claimants with adverse and independent claims in a single action.

Importantly, Rule 43 states that the lack of a common origin or identical claims among the various claimants is not a valid objection to their joinder. Additionally, the plaintiff’s assertion that they are not liable in whole or in part to any or all of the claimants does not preclude the interpleader action.

Service on Non-Resident Parties

That brings us back to the present case. In the present case, the insurance company opted to file its interpleader action in Federal District Court. This used to be the preferred forum for interpleader actions as it helped ensure that parties who are in different states could be served.

The Texas rules have been changed to address this. The court opinion, in this case, chronicles the efforts the life insurance company undertook to serve one of the parties. The court ended up authorizing substituted service on one of the non-Texas parties. It did so by applying the new Texas rules for the serving process.

Texas Rule of Civil Procedure 106 provides:

(a) Unless the citation or court order otherwise directs, the citation must be served by:(1) delivering to the defendant, in person, a copy of the citation, showing the delivery date, and of the petition; or(2) mailing to the defendant by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, a copy of the citation and of the petition.

(b) Upon motion supported by a statement—sworn to before a notary or made under penalty of perjury—listing any location where the defendant can probably be found and stating specifically the facts showing that service has been attempted under (a)(1) or (a)(2) at the location named in the statement but has not been successful, the court may authorize service:(1) by leaving a copy of the citation and of the petition with anyone older than sixteen at the location specified in the statement; or(2) in any other manner, including electronically by social media, email, or other technology, that the statement or other evidence shows will be reasonably effective to give the defendant notice of the suit.

And, so, under Texas Rule 106(b), if a plaintiff’s attempts to serve a defendant in person or by registered or certified mail are unsuccessful, a court may authorize substituted service only after receiving the required sworn statement and only in a manner that is reasonably calculated to provide notice. See TEX. R. CIV. P. 106(b)

If a defendant is absent or a non-resident of Texas, that defendant still may be served in the same manner as a resident defendant. See TEX. R. CIV. P. 108.

Given these rules, the Federal District Court was able to hear the interpleader suit.

The Need for a Probate and Administrator

The Federal District Court then addresses the drawback of bringing the interpleader suit in the Federal District Court instead of the Texas probate court, namely, the interpleader suit cannot include a probate estate as one cannot sue an estate when no administrator has been appointed.

The Federal rules do not provide for a probate administration. This is a legal process that is governed by state law and supervised by the state courts. In this case, the Texas probate court, which is the same court the interpleader could have been brought in in the first place.

The Federal District Court noted that it had to put the case on hold pending the parties filing for an administration in the Texas probate court so that a personal representative could be appointed for the estate. Why would the insurance company care about this?

The answer is that it means that the insurance company cannot just deposit the funds and be dismissed from the proceeding. The insurance company has to see to it that an administration is started in the Texas probate court and wait for that process before it can ask to be removed from the Federal case.

This also results in more cost for the estate, as the estate has to hire counsel to assist with proceedings in two different courts.

The Takeaway

In conclusion, when disputes arise concerning the validity of a life insurance beneficiary designation, interpleader lawsuits provide a crucial mechanism for resolving conflicts and determining rightful entitlements to the proceeds. The Allstate Insurance Company v. Benton case highlights the advantages of filing interpleader actions in the Texas probate courts, emphasizing the efficiency gained by consolidating probate administration and interpleader cases within the same court. This approach streamlines the legal process, reduces costs, and promotes a more efficient resolution of conflicts.

In the realm of life insurance beneficiary designation disputes, the interpleader action proves invaluable. By understanding the interplay between federal and Texas interpleader rules, as well as the significance of probate administration and choice of jurisdiction, parties can navigate these complex matters effectively and reach a just resolution.

Tips for Avoiding Fights Over Beneficiary Designation Forms

To avoid disputes over the validity of life insurance beneficiary designation forms, it is advisable to take proactive measures to avoid or discourage disputes. Here are some tips to consider:

  1. Keep beneficiary designations up to date: Regularly review and update your beneficiary designations to ensure they accurately reflect your current intentions. Life events such as marriage, divorce, birth of children, or the death of a beneficiary may necessitate changes to your designations.
  2. Clearly express your intentions: When completing beneficiary designation forms, be clear and specific about your intentions. Provide full names, addresses, and other identifying information to minimize any ambiguity or confusion.
  3. Maintain proper documentation: Keep copies of all beneficiary designation forms, correspondence, and related documents in a safe and easily accessible place. This documentation can serve as evidence of your intentions and help resolve any potential disputes.
  4. Communicate your wishes: Inform your loved ones and the intended beneficiaries about your life insurance policies and their respective roles. Openly discuss your intentions and ensure they understand how the proceeds will be distributed upon your passing.
  5. Coordinate beneficiary designations with other estate planning documents: Ensure your life insurance beneficiary designations align with your overall estate plan. Coordinate them with other estate planning documents, such as wills, trusts, and powers of attorney, to avoid conflicting instructions.
  6. Document your decision-making process: Keep records of the factors and considerations that influenced your beneficiary designations. This can serve as evidence of your thoughtful decision-making and help support the validity of your designations if ever challenged.

Our Houston Probate Attorneys provide a full range of probate services to our clients, including helping with interpleader actions. Affordable rates, fixed fees, and payment plans are available. We provide step-by-step instructions, guidance, checklists, and more for completing the probate process. We have years of combined experience we can use to support and guide you with probate and estate matters. Call us today for a FREE attorney consultation.


The content of this website is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. The information presented may not apply to your situation and should not be acted upon without consulting a qualified probate attorney. We encourage you to seek the advice of a competent attorney with any legal questions you may have.

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